Good medicine

How do you fight chronic absenteeism? Put a nurse in every school.

Almost a fifth of Memphis students are considered chronically absent from school, and too often it’s because of an asthma attack, a toothache or an undiagnosed psychological condition.

Community leaders grappling with the city’s high rate of absenteeism frequently have cited challenges rooted in poverty — from students who struggle to get a ride to school to embarrassment over dirty uniforms. Now they’re zeroing in on a deeper related problem: chronic health conditions.

Last year, a staggering 44,000 Memphis students reported suffering from a chronic health condition, contributing to 18 percent of students missing at least 18 days of class in Shelby County Schools or the state-run Achievement School District.

“It’s clear that having a nurse at every school could greatly reduce the number of students who miss school for preventable health reasons,” said Lora Jobe, executive director of PeopleFirst Partnership, a coalition of business, government, academic and civic leaders. “The health concerns we’re talking about disproportionately affect impoverished children and children of color. In Memphis, addressing this should be a top priority.”

Community leaders came together Wednesday at the University of Memphis for a summit on how health disparities are causing youngsters to miss school. The gathering follows last month’s launch of an attendance campaign by Shelby County Schools, providing supports for 10 schools with the most-absent students.

Students in Memphis are mostly people of color and from low-income families, both groups with higher-than-average rates of asthma and untreated dental cavities.

Last year, in fact, Memphis was named the nation’s worst city to live with asthma, a chronic lung condition that leads to episodes of wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath, among other symptoms.

Panelists talk about chronic absenteeism and health at a summit spearheaded by PeopleFirst Partnership.
PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Panelists talk about chronic absenteeism and health at a summit spearheaded by PeopleFirst Partnership.

The summit was attended by doctors, dentists, nurses and mental health professionals, as well as education and nonprofit leaders. Discussions gravitated frequently to the importance of having a full-time nurse in each school, not only to treat students but also to educate their families about how to manage medical conditions that might keep their kids home from school.

Tennessee law requires only one nurse for every 3,000 students, and budget cuts have made it impossible for Shelby County Schools to keep a nurse in every school building. Instead, nurses rotate across the district, usually giving each school one day of medical staffing a week.

That’s not enough, said Angela Hargrave, the district’s director of attendance and discipline.

“Parents aren’t comfortable that their children will be properly cared for at school,” Hargrave said. “People at schools aren’t comfortable with that responsibility. We’re not medical professionals. Our front office staff isn’t trained for that.”

A full-time school nurse can provide the medical care or information that makes the difference in coming to school or staying home, said Cindy Hogg, director of health services at Le Bonheur Community Health.

“A nurse in the school building is often the only care provider many children in low-income areas in Memphis see for years,” Hogg said. “Of course, nurses should send students home when they are sick. But so often students are missing way more school than they should because no one in the health world is communicating with them or their parents.”

Jobe pledged that PeopleFirst Partnership, which organized the summit, will lobby local and state officials to enact and fund a policy that lower the school nurse-to-student ratio.

“I hope this time next year, when we see Tennessee require a nurse in every school, you will be able to say, ‘I was in the room when this started,’” Jobe told the group.

Starting young

These 11-year-old Brooklyn students are asking New York City to do something about segregated schools

PHOTO: Christina Veiga
Matilda and Eliza Seki, left, and their friends Noa and Benji Weiss, right, collected signatures at a district 15 meeting to discuss middle school integration efforts.

While they learned about the history of segregation, a group of Brooklyn 11-year-olds took a good look around their classrooms and realized their schools weren’t so different from the photos in their textbooks.

So Matilda and Eliza Seki paired up with their friends Noa and Benji Weiss — two sets of twins — and decided to do something about it. They launched a petition on calling on the city to integrate its schools.

“We learned about separate and equal in the civil rights movement, and that it was not equal,” Eliza said, referring to the “separate but equal” legal doctrine once used to justify segregation. “And since there are schools with people of only one race, and it’s all separated, it cannot be equal.”

Matilda and Eliza are in the sixth grade at M.S. 839, and Noa and Benji are fifth-graders at P.S. 10. They already have a bit of experience in activism, having joined the Women’s March in D.C., and helping to lead environmental clubs at their school. They hold sophisticated views for kids their age, and are aware of the hurdles ingrained in addressing school segregation.

Describing how housing patterns can tie into school quality, Benji began his thoughts by saying: “Let’s say you’re from a different culture or race and you don’t have as much money as other people do — because we still live in a racist country — and you’re in an area where the housing is cheaper but you don’t have as good schools.”

Across New York City, adults have debated how to spur integration in the country’s largest school system — and one of the most segregated. According to one recent analysis, the city’s most selective high schools enroll 84 percent white and Asian students, even though those groups make up only 30 percent of the city’s student enrollment.

But student-organized groups have also been at the forefront of a grassroots movement for more diverse schools. The work of budding advocates Matilda, Eliza, Noa and Benji caught the attention of some those groups, and they’ve now joined the ranks of Teens Take Charge and IntegrateNYC as some of the youngest members. The changes they’d like to see go beyond admissions policies, but also include a push for additional resources for underserved schools, hiring more teachers of color and curricula that reflects all students and cultures.

“We decided it was an important issue and we wanted to help fix it,” Noa said.

Matilda added: “Our schools should look like our city.”

Their schools are in District 15, where 81 percent of white students are concentrated in just three of the district’s most selective middle schools, according to an analysis by parents. The city has launched a series of public workshops to craft a new admissions model to integrate middle schools there, but these kids already have their own ideas for how to do that.

Benji, who is heading to middle school next year, said it would be “pretty good” if schools stopped picking students based on criteria such as class grades and attendance. Such “screening” contributes to segregation because of a number of factors — from which elementary schools students attend, to their parents’ ability to navigate the complicated admissions process.  

“It’s… important to learn about different peoples’ backgrounds, and religions, and cultures,” he said. “And also to make sure that all kids, no matter their race, religion or where they live can get the same, good education.”

Raised Voices

Balloons, hearts, and ‘die-ins’: How Colorado students marked National Walkout Day

Students gather at the Colorado State Capitol to protest gun violence. (Melanie Asmar)

Thousands of students across Colorado poured out of their schools Wednesday to protest gun violence and to remember 17 victims of last month’s deadly shooting in Florida. Chalkbeat’s Melanie Asmar walked with students from East High School to the Colorado State Capitol, where Gov. John Hickenlooper and Speaker of the House Cristanta Duran urged them to remain politically active.

The protests took different forms at other schools – and not everyone wanted the event to be political. There were balloon releases, voter registration drives, and public “die-ins” at major intersections. And in one Denver area school district, a surge of threats cast a pall over events.

Here’s a look at #NationalWalkoutDay from around the region.

Students at Skinner Middle School in northwest Denver marched in silent solidarity.

In Colorado, teenagers can register to vote before their 18th birthday.

At schools in the Adams 12 district north of Denver, a big uptick in threats the night before – and a warning letter from the superintendent – led many students to skip school altogether.

Students at McAuliffe International School in northeast Denver spoke with their shirts. Instead of “Thoughts & Prayers,” they asked for “Policy & Change.”

But their event was not all about politics. They formed a heart with their bodies and read the names of the dead.

At Jefferson Jr./Sr. High School, students promised to work to change school culture.

Many schools released balloons to honor the victims and found other ways to advocate for change.

Unlike some Colorado districts, St. Vrain didn’t officially condone the walkouts, but students at Longmont schools walked out anyway.

Students at Denver’s South High School have been vocal about gun violence. In a recent visit from U.S. Rep. Diana DeGette, they rejected the idea that armed teachers would make them safer and demanded that lawmakers do more.

Students from one of Colorado’s KIPP charter schools used their bodies to send a message at a major intersection in west Denver.

Students of color in Denver reminded the public that gun violence is not limited to mass shootings.

Students aren’t just marching. They’re also writing their representatives. State Rep. Faith Winter, a Westminster Democrat, tweeted a picture of her inbox full of emails from students.

Colorado carries the legacy of the 1999 mass shooting at Columbine High School, where a memorial asks urgently as ever: “How have things changed; what have we learned?”