Tennessee

Tennessee students lead the nation in growth on NAEP

Tennessee students made some of the largest gains in the country in this year’s National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the so-called “nation’s report card.”

Tennessee is “one of the few bright spots” in the NAEP data this year, said Erik Hanushek, a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University. Most states’ scores increased by just one point in 4th and 8th grade math and 4th grade reading and by three points on 8th grade reading between 2011 and 2013. But scores for both 4th and 8th grade students in Tennessee jumped between 4 and 7 points in each of the tested subjects.

“It’s hard to move the needle on all four grades and subjects unless you’re really doing something,” said Jack Buckley, the commissioner of the National Center for Education Statistics, which administers NAEP.

In Tennessee, as elected officials planned press conferences today celebrating the increased scores that were released this morning, educators debated what, exactly, may have caused the growth.

Both the District of Columbia and Tennessee schools have been home to dramatic reforms in teacher compensation and evaluation in recent years, and were among the early adopters of policies that tie teacher pay and evaluations to student test scores. But similar policies are in place around the country now.

National Assessment

A national representative sample of 342,000 8th graders and 377,000 4th graders took the reading and math tests early this year. More data from the 2013 tests, including national scores for 12th graders in reading and math, will be released in the coming months.

Individual schools’ and students’ scores on NAEP are not publicized.

While each state has its own standardized test, each of which has changed over time, the NAEP remains relatively constant and is designed to allow for comparisons to be made between states and over time. State and education leaders use the data to compare where states fall academically and how different groups of students fare within their states. The data are also frequently used to make claims about national education progress compared to other countries, with some experts saying, for instance, that low NAEP scores are a threat to national security.

On the 2013 test, Tennessee students made the largest gains in the country in 4th and 8th grade reading. Tennessee 4th and 8th graders’ math test score gains outpaced every state except for the District of Columbia. Tennessee, the District of Columbia, and Department of Defense schools were the only jurisdictions that saw increases in both tested subjects in both tested grades. (See chart below for more detail.)

 

Tennessee leads the nation in growth, but big disparities remain

| Infographics

Referendum on Reforms?

Changes in Tennessee’s policies on teacher effectiveness were heralded as a potential reason for the growth. Arne Duncan, the U.S. Secretary of Education, suggested Wednesday that Tennessee and D.C. in particular had succeeded because of their “laser-like focus on teacher effectiveness” and rapid shift to new standards known as the Common Core. Duncan made adopting common standards and new teacher evaluations that weigh student performance a requirement for winning federal funds through Race to the Top, a federal grant program.

While many states have since adopted similar policies, Tennessee was among the first winners of a $500 million Race to the Top grant in 2010 and has gone farther than many other states. For instance, fifty percent of Tennessee teachers’ evaluations are based on students’ growth on standardized tests.

Hanushek said the NAEP results validate the pace of change in Tennessee and D.C. “That’s why this is so significant: There was huge pushback, particularly from current school personnel who liked the way things were going, thank you,” Hanushek said. “You wouldn’t want to get into a fight if it had no impact. But in fact, the improved performance [on NAEP] is something that they should be proud about.”

But Hanushek said the overall picture remained discouraging, with scores across the country improving less quickly than they have in the past.

Arne Duncan attributed the variations among states to what he called “extraordinary leadership” at the state level, from officials who have “done some very difficult and courageous work” raising standards. He added, “Where people are more timid, you’re seeing less progress.”

Achievement Gaps Linger

Despite the progress, just 27 percent of Tennessee’s 8th graders scored proficient or above in math, placing those students near the bottom of the country. Tennessee students’ scores on the 8th grade math and 4th grade reading and math tests were below the national average, despite the growth.

More than half of Tennessee’s students live below the poverty line, while 81 percent attend schools designated as Title I by the federal government due to their high concentrations of low-income students.

“The issue’s so multifaceted…New evaluation doesn’t solve the problem of a kid going hungry at night,” said Samantha Bates, a 7th grade language arts teacher in Buchanan.

Nationally and in Tennessee, achievement gaps between racial groups lingered. Tennessee black students, almost a quarter of the state’s student population, continued to perform well below their white peers. In 4th grade reading, for example, white students performed 26 points higher than their black peers, a three-point increase over Tennessee’s 2011 gap.

Real change

In Tennessee, some of the policy changes credited with raising test scores have upset teachers, parents, and community activists. Teacher advocacy groups have said that using test scores to account for half of a teacher’s evaluation is unfair, and many Race to the Top-funded turnaround efforts meant that beloved teachers lost jobs.

Some question whether the state will continue with the same policies now that the influx of the $500 million Race to the Top grant comes to an end.

“It’ll be key to watch in Tennessee to watch how they’re doing in two years and if they keep improving,” the NCES’s Buckley said.

“If it’s some sort of reform magic, then what’s happening in Florida?” Kevin Welner, the director of the National Education Policy Center at the University of Colorado in Boulder, said, referring to another state whose growth on NAEP was heralded several years ago but didn’t see similar results this year.

Bates, the 7th grade teacher, said that she felt that the state’s new teacher evaluations had helped improve teachers’ practice, but not because of the threat of losing jobs: “It’s not the accountability — it’s the rubrics.” In other words, evaluations were clearer about how teachers needed to improve, she said.

Bates said that she felt that the NAEP scores did represent real improvement in Tennessee schools. She credited higher state standards implemented several years before Race to the Top and a higher benchmark for passing state tests. “Students have been doing harder material and having to do it at better rates, and the teachers have implemented it better…when you expect more out of students, they will deliver,” she said.

J.C. Bowman, the executive director of the Professional Educators of Tennessee, said, “You’ll hear that it’s a reflection of policies in place, the federal government will say it’s attributable to Race to the Top and the state will say it’s a reflection of a renewed emphasis on education. I’m going to say, hey, it’s a reflection of the teacher in the classroom that’s working hard every day.”

Sarah Darville and Daarel Burnette contributed reporting to this article. 

School safety

Hiring more security officers in Memphis after school shootings could have unintended consequences

PHOTO: Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post/Getty Images

Tennessee’s largest district, Shelby County Schools, is slated to add more school resource officers under the proposed budget for next school year.

Superintendent Dorsey Hopson earmarked $2 million to hire 30 school resource officers in addition to the 98 already in some of its 150-plus schools. The school board is scheduled to vote on the budget Tuesday.

But an increase in law enforcement officers could have unintended consequences.

A new state law that bans local governments from refusing to cooperate with federal immigration officials could put school resource officers in an awkward position.

Tennessee Education Commissioner Candice McQueen recently reminded school personnel they are not obligated to release student information regarding immigration status. School resource officers employed by police or sheriff’s departments, however, do not answer to school districts. Shelby County Schools is still reviewing the law, but school board members have previously gone on the record emphasizing their commitment to protecting undocumented students.

“Right now we are just trying to get a better understanding of the law and the impact that it may have,” said Natalia Powers, a district spokeswoman.

Also, incidents of excessive force and racial bias toward black students have cropped up in recent years. Two white Memphis officers were fired in 2013 after hitting a black student and wrestling her to the ground because she was “yelling and cussing” on school grounds. And mothers of four elementary school students recently filed a lawsuit against a Murfreesboro officer who arrested them at school in 2016 for failing to break up a fight that occurred off-campus.

Just how common those incidents are in Memphis is unclear. In response to Chalkbeat’s query for the number and type of complaints in the last two school years, Shelby County Schools said it “does not have any documents responsive to this request.”

Currently, 38 school resource officers are sheriff’s deputies, and the rest are security officers hired by Shelby County Schools. The officers respond and work to prevent criminal activity in all high schools and middle schools, Hopson said. The 30 additional officers would augment staffing at some schools and for the first time, branch out to some elementary schools. Hopson said those decisions will be based on crime rates in surrounding neighborhoods and school incidents.

Hopson’s initial recommendation for more school resource officers was in response to the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, that killed 17 people and sparked a wave of student activism on school safety, including in Memphis.

Gov. Bill Haslam’s recent $30 million budget boost would allow school districts across Tennessee to hire more law enforcement officers or improve building security. Measures to arm some teachers with guns or outlaw certain types of guns have fallen flat.


For more on the role and history of school resource officers in Tennessee, read our five things to know.


Sheriff’s deputies and district security officers meet weekly, said Capt. Dallas Lavergne of the Shelby County Sheriff’s Office. When the Memphis Police Department pulled their officers out of school buildings following the merger of city and county school systems, the county Sheriff’s Office replaced them with deputies.

All deputy recruits go through school resource officer training, and those who are assigned to schools get additional annual training. In a 2013 review of police academies across the nation, Tennessee was cited as the only state that had specific training for officers deployed to schools.

call out

Our readers had a lot to say in 2017. Make your voice heard in 2018.

PHOTO: Chris Hill/Whitney Achievement School
Teacher Carl Schneider walks children home in 2015 as part of the after-school walking program at Whitney Achievement Elementary School in Memphis. This photograph went viral and inspired a First Person reflection from Schneider in 2017.

Last year, some of our most popular pieces came from readers who told their stories in a series that we call First Person.

For instance, Carl Schneider wrote about the 2015 viral photograph that showed him walking his students home from school in a low-income neighborhood of Memphis. His perspective on what got lost in the shuffle continues to draw thousands of readers.

First Person is also a platform to influence policy. Recent high school graduate Anisah Karim described the pressure she felt to apply to 100 colleges in the quest for millions of dollars in scholarships. Because of her piece, the school board in Memphis is reviewing the so-called “million-dollar scholar” culture at some high schools.

Do you have a story to tell or a point to make? In 2018, we want to give an even greater voice to students, parents, teachers, administrators, advocates and others who are trying to improve public education in Tennessee. We’re looking for essays of 500 to 750 words grounded in personal experience.

Whether your piece is finished or you just have an idea to discuss, drop a line to Community Editor Caroline Bauman at cbauman@chalkbeat.org.

But first, check out these top First Person pieces from Tennesseans in 2017:

My high school told me to apply to 100 colleges — and I almost lost myself in the process

“A counselor never tried to determine what the absolute best school for me would be. I wasted a lot of time, money and resources trying to figure that out. And I almost lost myself in the process.” —Anisah Karim     

Why I’m not anxious about where my kids go to school — but do worry about the segregation that surrounds us

“In fact, it will be a good thing for my boys to learn alongside children who are different from them in many ways — that is one advantage they will have that I did not, attending parochial schools in a lily-white suburb.” —Mary Jo Cramb

I covered Tennessee’s ed beat for Chalkbeat. Here’s what I learned.

“Apathy is often cited as a major problem facing education. That’s not the case in Tennessee.” —Grace Tatter

I went viral for walking my students home from school in Memphis. Here’s what got lost in the shuffle.

“When #blacklivesmatter is a controversial statement; when our black male students have a one in three chance of facing jail time; when kids in Memphis raised in the bottom fifth of the socioeconomic bracket have a 2.6 percent chance of climbing to the top fifth — our walking students home does not fix that, either.” —Carl Schneider

I think traditional public schools are the backbone of democracy. My child attends a charter school. Let’s talk.

“It was a complicated choice to make. The dialogue around school choice in Nashville, though, doesn’t often include much nuance — or many voices of parents like me.” —Aidan Hoyal

I grew up near Charlottesville and got a misleading education about Civil War history. Students deserve better.

“In my classroom discussions, the impetus for the Civil War was resigned to a debate over the balance of power between federal and state governments. Slavery was taught as a footnote to the cause of the war.” —Laura Faith Kebede