first steps

Anxiety at public daycare centers as system overhaul gears up

Students at the Stagg Street Center for Children

On a recent morning at Stagg Street Center for Children, in Williamsburg, a class of 4-year-olds put up an abstract, angular structure in the first-floor art gallery. The were inspired by Louise Nevelson’s “Sky Cathedral,” which they had seen on a recent trip to MOMA. Later, that same class sculpted in clay with a visiting artist, while a portable kiln warmed up behind them.

For more than four decades, Larry Provette, Stagg Street’s director, has provided rich, arts-focused experiences for low-income children in his neighborhood. But he fears that Stagg Street might not be around much longer.

That’s because a city initiative to boost early childhood education is requiring every publicly funded daycare center, from mom-and-pop operations working out of apartments to larger centers housed in city facilities, to prove that they are worthy of city funding. Directors welcomed the news late last week that their deadline to do so has been pushed back a month, to Sept. 12.

That deadline is for the first step in an ambitious overhaul, called EarlyLearn, of the city’s public daycare system. Under EarlyLearn, the city’s 647 daycare programs and family care networks, which together served 51,766 children in 2010-2011, will have to meet higher academic and developmental standards starting in 2013. By September, all programs must reapply for approval from the Administration for Children’s Services, which funds and oversees them. The proposals must describe each center’s existing programs and outline how they will be updated to meet the new standards. ACS and the Department of Education, which will help review applications, plan to announce which centers will receive new contracts in March 2012.

The new standards are steep: Programs must show how they provide support to parents, create a challenging curriculum that prepares students for kindergarten and instruct children in health and safety. They need to find more time for staff development, guarantee service for children with special needs and be assessed annually according to a new grading program. Children will need to be screened for health, social and hygienic needs and assessed for academic gains. Some programs will have to expand their hours of operation. And for the first time, centers will need to pay for a portion of this themselves.

The change is coming at a time when national focus is shifting to early childhood education. In May, Education Secretary Arne Duncan announced that $500 million in Race to the Top funds would be set aside for states that promise to boost their child care systems. EarlyLearn predates Duncan’s announcement but could help New York State’s bid, which Sherry Cleary, co-chair of the Governor’s Early Childhood Advisory Council, characterized as a “strong contender.”

Many center directors and early childhood experts applaud the spirit behind EarlyLearn. But they also say ACS isn’t giving centers enough time or money to overhaul themselves, and that the initiative could end up hurting some centers more than it helps the system.

The New Deal

The changes are meant to unify a sprawling system of daycare centers that have long ranged in quality and character.

“There is definitely a disparity [in quality],” said Letitia James, the Brooklyn City Councilwoman. “I’ve spoken to schools in my district about daycare centers, asking them if they come to school prepared. They can identify the children that come from certain daycare centers, because they are developmentally delayed.”

The impetus behind EarlyLearn is a desire to improve strong programs while pushing weaker ones to catch up — or be closed. 

“While the existing system has many high quality programs, the standards and services available vary based on funding stream,” Melanie Hartzog, the deputy commissioner for child care and head start at ACS, wrote in an email. “It is our goal to move to a system where services are seamless for families and all programs regardless of setting are resourced to provide successful learning environments for young children.”

In short, that means becoming more like a Head Start program. Head Start, a half-century-old federal initiative  that aims to help poor children start kindergarten on par with their middle-class peers, sets out over 1,700 standards for its programs, more than 250 of which are operating in the city. Head Start programs are considered rigorous and comprehensive, and studies show that Head Start graduates are more likely to complete high school and less likely to be charged with a crime.

“If you’re not ready, if you don’t want to be a Head Start, you’re still going to want to look at that program, and look in that direction,” Wendy Raver, an education consultant, told 15 childcare center directors at a recent workshop on how to craft their EarlyLearn proposals.

With what money?

But replicating the rigor of a Head Start comes with a hefty price tag, one that some center directors say they will not be able to afford. Since 2006, the city has spent more on daycare even as the number of children served has declined, according to a 2010 report from the city’s Independent Budget Office. And while City Council largesse has meant that only 10 programs have shut their doors in the past two years, budget cuts have gutted ACS’s central administration. 

“There have been across-the-board staff reductions since 2008,” said Elysia Murphy Carnevale, an ACS spokeswoman. “Agency-wide, we have gone through several rounds of budget cuts in response to the fiscal crisis. On top of that, the city has been facing a significant deficit in the childcare system.”

“This is an incredibly critical moment for the system,” said Betty Holcomb, Policy Director for the Center for Children’s Initiatives, a nonprofit that is currently analyzing EarlyLearn to determine whether the requirements can be met within ACS’s proposed budget.

Many center directors have already concluded that EarlyLearn is an impossible task for them right now. “It’s going to put us all out of business,” said Provette. “All programs are at risk, very much so.”

Wendy Raver’s workshop was sponsored by the Daycare Council, a membership organization that provides assistance to child care centers, to help directors write their proposals. At the workshop, she acknowledged daycare providers’ concerns about being able to meet the new requirements.

“There’s going to be a lot of centers at the table that don’t have this now,” Raver said. “You’re going to have to show in your proposals what steps you’re going to take to get there.”

One director, who wished to remain anonymous so as not to jeopardize her proposal, complained that she lacked the personnel to implement the changes.

“Some of our employees only have a high school degree,” she said. “Now I have to train them to design a curriculum, and at the same time you’re cutting my budget?” (The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, which sets the licensing requirements, said that daycare classroom teachers have always been required to hold a Bachelor’s degree.)

Andrea Anthony, the executive director of the Daycare Council, said there could be ways to meet some of the EarlyLearn standards without spending more money.

“Our official position is that it’s not enough money to provide the services that they are asking for,” Anthony said. “But there are options. … On some of this stuff we can get some help.”

She suggested, for example, that programs could meet a requirement that they teach about health by recruiting volunteers from local hospitals.

But even if centers can find ways to meet the new standards, they will still have to wrestle with two other financial pressures. Under EarlyLearn, ACS is now asking centers to pay for 6.7 percent of their operating costs, and, possibly, to shoulder their employees’ health care costs. Some leaders of nonprofit groups that support daycare centers say that these new stipulations cannot be met within the current budget.

“The funding formula will not meet the needs,” Liz Accles, of the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, which provides services and assistance to public daycare centers, said. “The healthcare expenses that are said to be contained within the [budgeted rate] just don’t pan out when programs do their own analysis.”

She said she had concluded that EarlyLearn could not work while programs are already straining to provide services. “EarlyLearn is an interesting model in a time of ample funding,” she said, “not a time of protracted budgetary restrictions.”

Whether the time is ripe or not, directors are preparing for the change. At Stagg Street, Provette is figuring out ways to sell his program’s most valuable features, like his arts-focused curriculum, in its EarlyLearn application. But he worries that he still might not make the cut. “That would be devastating for this community,” he said.

 


EarlyLearn Comparison Chart

School safety

Hiring more security officers in Memphis after school shootings could have unintended consequences

PHOTO: Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post/Getty Images

Tennessee’s largest district, Shelby County Schools, is slated to add more school resource officers under the proposed budget for next school year.

Superintendent Dorsey Hopson earmarked $2 million to hire 30 school resource officers in addition to the 98 already in some of its 150-plus schools. The school board is scheduled to vote on the budget Tuesday.

But an increase in law enforcement officers could have unintended consequences.

A new state law that bans local governments from refusing to cooperate with federal immigration officials could put school resource officers in an awkward position.

Tennessee Education Commissioner Candice McQueen recently reminded school personnel they are not obligated to release student information regarding immigration status. School resource officers employed by police or sheriff’s departments, however, do not answer to school districts. Shelby County Schools is still reviewing the law, but school board members have previously gone on the record emphasizing their commitment to protecting undocumented students.

“Right now we are just trying to get a better understanding of the law and the impact that it may have,” said Natalia Powers, a district spokeswoman.

Also, incidents of excessive force and racial bias toward black students have cropped up in recent years. Two white Memphis officers were fired in 2013 after hitting a black student and wrestling her to the ground because she was “yelling and cussing” on school grounds. And mothers of four elementary school students recently filed a lawsuit against a Murfreesboro officer who arrested them at school in 2016 for failing to break up a fight that occurred off-campus.

Just how common those incidents are in Memphis is unclear. In response to Chalkbeat’s query for the number and type of complaints in the last two school years, Shelby County Schools said it “does not have any documents responsive to this request.”

Currently, 38 school resource officers are sheriff’s deputies, and the rest are security officers hired by Shelby County Schools. The officers respond and work to prevent criminal activity in all high schools and middle schools, Hopson said. The 30 additional officers would augment staffing at some schools and for the first time, branch out to some elementary schools. Hopson said those decisions will be based on crime rates in surrounding neighborhoods and school incidents.

Hopson’s initial recommendation for more school resource officers was in response to the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, that killed 17 people and sparked a wave of student activism on school safety, including in Memphis.

Gov. Bill Haslam’s recent $30 million budget boost would allow school districts across Tennessee to hire more law enforcement officers or improve building security. Measures to arm some teachers with guns or outlaw certain types of guns have fallen flat.


For more on the role and history of school resource officers in Tennessee, read our five things to know.


Sheriff’s deputies and district security officers meet weekly, said Capt. Dallas Lavergne of the Shelby County Sheriff’s Office. When the Memphis Police Department pulled their officers out of school buildings following the merger of city and county school systems, the county Sheriff’s Office replaced them with deputies.

All deputy recruits go through school resource officer training, and those who are assigned to schools get additional annual training. In a 2013 review of police academies across the nation, Tennessee was cited as the only state that had specific training for officers deployed to schools.

call out

Our readers had a lot to say in 2017. Make your voice heard in 2018.

PHOTO: Chris Hill/Whitney Achievement School
Teacher Carl Schneider walks children home in 2015 as part of the after-school walking program at Whitney Achievement Elementary School in Memphis. This photograph went viral and inspired a First Person reflection from Schneider in 2017.

Last year, some of our most popular pieces came from readers who told their stories in a series that we call First Person.

For instance, Carl Schneider wrote about the 2015 viral photograph that showed him walking his students home from school in a low-income neighborhood of Memphis. His perspective on what got lost in the shuffle continues to draw thousands of readers.

First Person is also a platform to influence policy. Recent high school graduate Anisah Karim described the pressure she felt to apply to 100 colleges in the quest for millions of dollars in scholarships. Because of her piece, the school board in Memphis is reviewing the so-called “million-dollar scholar” culture at some high schools.

Do you have a story to tell or a point to make? In 2018, we want to give an even greater voice to students, parents, teachers, administrators, advocates and others who are trying to improve public education in Tennessee. We’re looking for essays of 500 to 750 words grounded in personal experience.

Whether your piece is finished or you just have an idea to discuss, drop a line to Community Editor Caroline Bauman at cbauman@chalkbeat.org.

But first, check out these top First Person pieces from Tennesseans in 2017:

My high school told me to apply to 100 colleges — and I almost lost myself in the process

“A counselor never tried to determine what the absolute best school for me would be. I wasted a lot of time, money and resources trying to figure that out. And I almost lost myself in the process.” —Anisah Karim     

Why I’m not anxious about where my kids go to school — but do worry about the segregation that surrounds us

“In fact, it will be a good thing for my boys to learn alongside children who are different from them in many ways — that is one advantage they will have that I did not, attending parochial schools in a lily-white suburb.” —Mary Jo Cramb

I covered Tennessee’s ed beat for Chalkbeat. Here’s what I learned.

“Apathy is often cited as a major problem facing education. That’s not the case in Tennessee.” —Grace Tatter

I went viral for walking my students home from school in Memphis. Here’s what got lost in the shuffle.

“When #blacklivesmatter is a controversial statement; when our black male students have a one in three chance of facing jail time; when kids in Memphis raised in the bottom fifth of the socioeconomic bracket have a 2.6 percent chance of climbing to the top fifth — our walking students home does not fix that, either.” —Carl Schneider

I think traditional public schools are the backbone of democracy. My child attends a charter school. Let’s talk.

“It was a complicated choice to make. The dialogue around school choice in Nashville, though, doesn’t often include much nuance — or many voices of parents like me.” —Aidan Hoyal

I grew up near Charlottesville and got a misleading education about Civil War history. Students deserve better.

“In my classroom discussions, the impetus for the Civil War was resigned to a debate over the balance of power between federal and state governments. Slavery was taught as a footnote to the cause of the war.” —Laura Faith Kebede