reality check

For high school students, school choice is hard to come by

Is there school choice in New York City? It depends whom you ask.

Ask in Harlem, and members of Harlem Parents United, a group organized by charter school operator Eva Moskowitz, might tell you that there is: They have all chosen charter schools for their children and are aggressively pushing the neighborhood’s families to have even more options. They have allies in Mayor Bloomberg and Schools Chancellor Joel Klein, who count increasing school choice as a cornerstone of their reforms.

But ask a high school student who wants to change schools, and you might get another answer entirely. According to an article in the New York Post, ninth grader Kimselle Castanos said she asked the Department of Education for a transfer dozens of times but didn’t get one until she was assaulted by students from another school in the building. The DOE thinks the Post got some major facts wrong, such as how many times Kimselle e-mailed the chancellor, officials told me today. But even if it did, the real story remains that in a system that boasts about the choices open to students, Kimselle and her family felt stuck in a school that wasn’t right for her.

I heard from countless parents, students, and advocates desperately seeking school transfers when I worked at Insideschools, through the hotline run by parent organization Advocates for Children. Callers reported that their transfer requests, particularly at the high school level, had been denied even though they had compelling reasons for seeking them. Those calls continue to pour in, my former colleague Pamela Wheaton, Insideschools’ executive director, told me today.

“For whatever reason, it has become increasingly difficult, almost impossible, to get a transfer to another regular high school,” Wheaton said.

The decline in transfers coincided with a 2003 change in how the DOE handles high school enrollment. Before then, principals could mutually agree to release and accept a student. But that year, the DOE centralized high school enrollment, and principals no longer had discretion to accept transfers themselves. Since then, high school students have been permitted to change schools only in a limited number of circumstances: if their school is failing under either the city’s or the state’s accountability systems (only 13 of the city’s 500-plus high schools are eligible); if their commute takes longer than 1.5 hours, if a doctor says a transfer is medically necessary, or if staying in the school puts a student in danger.

Limiting the reasons for which transfers are granted is educationally sound, said Andy Jacob, a DOE spokesman. “It wouldn’t be practical and it wouldn’t be beneficial for a student’s education to change schools every single year,” he said.

But a policy designed to keep students in their original school isn’t always in students’ best interests, Wheaton said. A student claiming she deosn’t feel safe in her school can’t get a transfer approved without providing the DOE with an official police report documenting an incident. Kimselle Castanos was finally able to furnish a report only after she was assaulted inside her school building.

“That’s a huge problem with the DOE. Unless you’re actually assaulted, it’s basically impossible to get a safety transfer,” Wheaton said. “It’s kind of a Catch-22. If you’re feeling threatened, that’s not enough.”

Students who enter a high school only to find it doesn’t offer what they need — picture a a student at a small high school who tires of the limited course offerings — are also trapped. One escape route is participating in the high school admissions process all over again, which all ninth graders are allowed to do.

“But not everybody can tell in the first two months of ninth grade that a school isn’t right for them,” Wheaton said.

Another option for some students is to enroll at one of the DOE’s transfer high schools, which serve teens who have not been successful at their original schools.

DOE officials say no regulation exists to prevent high school students from trying to transfer even if their reasons aren’t typically accepted. “You can walk into any Borough Enrollment Office and apply for a transfer for any reason,” said Jacob. “But relatively speaking there are not a lot of transfers” for reasons other than safety and accountability, he said.

So has school choice increased under Klein’s leadership?

Absolutely, Jacob said. He called the high school application process “the best example of school choice in the city”: “You can apply to any school in the city. Not only that, but there are many more schools to choose from.” More than 200 new high schools have opened since 2002.

Wheaton said the situation is more complicated.

“There are more options at the entry level,” she said, noting that the number of high schools, transfer schools, and charter schools have all increased, and that this year’s new kindergarten enrollment process at least allows families to apply to schools outside of their zone. “But there is not increased choice if you’re in a school and want a transfer.”

What's Your Education Story?

As the 2018 school year begins, join us for storytelling from Indianapolis educators

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy/Chalkbeat
Sarah TeKolste, right, and Lori Jenkins at a Teacher Story Slam, in April.

In partnership with Teachers Lounge Indy, Chalkbeat is hosting another teacher story slam this fall featuring educators from across the city.

Over the past couple of years, Chalkbeat has brought readers personal stories from teachers and students through the events. Some of our favorites touched on how a teacher won the trust of her most skeptical student, why another teacher decided to come out to his students, and one educator’s call to ramp up the number of students pursuing a college education.

The event, 5:30 p.m. Thursday, Sept. 13, is free and open to the public — please RSVP here.

Event details:

5:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.
Thursday, Sept. 13, 2018
Tube Factory artspace
1125 Cruft St., Indianapolis, IN 46203
Get tickets here and find more on Facebook

More in What's Your Education Story?

School safety

Hiring more security officers in Memphis after school shootings could have unintended consequences

PHOTO: Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post/Getty Images

Tennessee’s largest district, Shelby County Schools, is slated to add more school resource officers under the proposed budget for next school year.

Superintendent Dorsey Hopson earmarked $2 million to hire 30 school resource officers in addition to the 98 already in some of its 150-plus schools. The school board is scheduled to vote on the budget Tuesday.

But an increase in law enforcement officers could have unintended consequences.

A new state law that bans local governments from refusing to cooperate with federal immigration officials could put school resource officers in an awkward position.

Tennessee Education Commissioner Candice McQueen recently reminded school personnel they are not obligated to release student information regarding immigration status. School resource officers employed by police or sheriff’s departments, however, do not answer to school districts. Shelby County Schools is still reviewing the law, but school board members have previously gone on the record emphasizing their commitment to protecting undocumented students.

“Right now we are just trying to get a better understanding of the law and the impact that it may have,” said Natalia Powers, a district spokeswoman.

Also, incidents of excessive force and racial bias toward black students have cropped up in recent years. Two white Memphis officers were fired in 2013 after hitting a black student and wrestling her to the ground because she was “yelling and cussing” on school grounds. And mothers of four elementary school students recently filed a lawsuit against a Murfreesboro officer who arrested them at school in 2016 for failing to break up a fight that occurred off-campus.

Just how common those incidents are in Memphis is unclear. In response to Chalkbeat’s query for the number and type of complaints in the last two school years, Shelby County Schools said it “does not have any documents responsive to this request.”

Currently, 38 school resource officers are sheriff’s deputies, and the rest are security officers hired by Shelby County Schools. The officers respond and work to prevent criminal activity in all high schools and middle schools, Hopson said. The 30 additional officers would augment staffing at some schools and for the first time, branch out to some elementary schools. Hopson said those decisions will be based on crime rates in surrounding neighborhoods and school incidents.

Hopson’s initial recommendation for more school resource officers was in response to the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, that killed 17 people and sparked a wave of student activism on school safety, including in Memphis.

Gov. Bill Haslam’s recent $30 million budget boost would allow school districts across Tennessee to hire more law enforcement officers or improve building security. Measures to arm some teachers with guns or outlaw certain types of guns have fallen flat.


For more on the role and history of school resource officers in Tennessee, read our five things to know.


Sheriff’s deputies and district security officers meet weekly, said Capt. Dallas Lavergne of the Shelby County Sheriff’s Office. When the Memphis Police Department pulled their officers out of school buildings following the merger of city and county school systems, the county Sheriff’s Office replaced them with deputies.

All deputy recruits go through school resource officer training, and those who are assigned to schools get additional annual training. In a 2013 review of police academies across the nation, Tennessee was cited as the only state that had specific training for officers deployed to schools.