Colorado

U.S. geography scores disappoint

Editor’s note: This Education Week article is one result of a partnership between EdNews Colorado and the weekly education journal, allowing us to provide in-depth stories from a national perspective.

By Sarah D. Sparks, Education Week

About one in three American 4th graders can read a compass rose well enough to identify basic map regions, and more than half know that the Great Plains has more farming than fishing or mining, according to the latest federal assessment of geography.
Antique world map

That was the good news.

The National Center for Education Statistics, which administers the test, released results this morning for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress in geography. It found that 4th graders scored on average 213 out of a possible 500, an “all-time high” since the test started in 1994, but the rising scores have not translated to more students moving from “basic” to “proficient” performance on the test, and the percentage of students achieving at the “advanced” level has gone down in every grade.

Similarly, average 8th grade scores are flat at 282, and in 12th grade, average scores have dropped from 285 in 1994 and 2001 to 282 in 2010, a significant decline.

“What we’re starting to do is draw attention to the fact that this is a strategically important issue,” said Daniel Edelson, the vice president of education at the Washington-based National Geographic Society. “This is not the first of the wake-up calls about the state of geography education.”

“The basic story here is that we have not invested in geography education at all in the last decade. Both for workforce preparedness and national security, there are big costs to neglecting geography education,” he said. “You need people who can reason about geographic challenges … people who understand water and energy systems. The more we wait to make these investments, the more we’re going to have to catch up to the rest of the world.”

The geography report is the third this year looking at American students’ social studies knowledge, following civics and history reports released in May and June.“Obviously, these subjects are intertwined. Geography provides the context for all the others,” said Shannon Garrison, a 4th grade teacher in Los Angeles and a member of the National Assessment Governing Board, which oversees NAEP policy.

All three studies paint a mostly lackluster portrait of American students’ social studies proficiency, as well as a small, persistent gender gap across social studies subjects. In geography, boys outperformed girls by 4 to 5 points across grades.

Yet Roger M. Downs, a geography professor at Pennsylvania State University, noted that since 1994, achievement gaps have narrowed between black and white students by 20 points in grade 4 and by 9 points in grade 8.

“These two narrowing gaps remind us that geography is accessible and important to all students, and both groups should have the foundations they need to be informed and productive citizens,” Mr. Downs said in a statement.

Test tried to gauge problem solving

NCES Commissioner Sean P. “Jack” Buckley said the most recent geography assessment tried to go beyond basic recitation of place names to gauge students’ problem-solving abilities and understanding of the connections between physical places and their societies.

Among the findings:

  • Only 4 percent of 8th graders could give two reasons that a graph showed rising urban population and shrinking rural population in the United States over time.
  • One in 10 students in 8th grade could identify the reason early Great Plains settlers built sod houses.
  • Among 12th graders, 59 percent understood that developing countries’ exports are often limited to agricultural products and raw materials rather than manufactured or high-technology products.

The results did not surprise Peggy Altoff, a social studies consultant for Colorado and a past president of the Silver Spring, Md.-based National Council for the Social Studies.

“We know from report after report that social studies is not being tested and is therefore not being taught,” Ms. Altoff said. “States may have strong standards, but without strong legislation to back the teaching of it, I don’t think it’s happening.”

The National Geographic’s Edelson, who studies geography education in the states, said that while every state includes geography content standards, only about 15 actually require that they be taught. Of the 24 states that require high school exit exams, only New York and Virginia require a geography assessment, and another six states require a social studies exam that includes geography topics.

In fact, Edelson, Altoff, and the NAEP governing board’s Garrison argued the 4th grade improvements may have as much to do with gains in basic literacy as in geographic content knowledge.

“I think you will find when you look at the questions, they don’t always require complex knowledge; they just require the students to read the question,” Altoff said.

Yet Buckley, the statistics commissioner, said analyses of students’ recorded class time in the NAEP study, as well as separate staffing and high school transcript studies conducted by the NCES, do not show that the social sciences are getting short shrift in schools.

Extent of geography instruction debated

To the contrary: The percentage of students reporting that they studied geography topics such as natural resources, countries and cultures, and environmental issues at least once a month increased 10 percent or more in each topic from 1994 to 2010. Still, that didn’t seem to matter much for NAEP; the test scores of students who studied those topics at least once a month were statistically no different from the scores of students who studied them “never or hardly ever.”

“There’s not a lot there that can tell me why,” Buckley said. “There’s an increase in the amount of time, and certainly an increase in the credits earned, and yet the scores at the top [grades] are flat, and the scores of the highest-performing kids are declining.”

Penn State’s Downs and Altoff both noted that geography and other social studies are often lumped together in courses, which can reduce students’ ability to form a coherent foundation of knowledge over time.

Last month, the National Science Foundation awarded a two-year, $2.2 million grant to develop a 10-year plan to improve geography education in the United States. The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education will develop frameworks in instructional materials, teacher education and professional development, geography assessment, and research into geography education. The groups are expected to report on a draft of their plan next spring, with the final version out in September 2012.

In the meantime, social studies in general has fared poorly in the most recent federal budget, with grants for economics and civics education eliminated and a program for U.S. history halved in the fiscal 2011 budget.

In March, citing geotechnology as one of the nation’s three fastest-growing employment fields, Sen. Thad Cochran, R-Miss., and Rep. Chris Van Hollen, D-Md., proposed $15 million in new federal professional-development grants for geography teachers. The Teaching Geography is Fundamental Act, introduced in sister bills in both houses of Congress, has languished in committee, and if history is any indication, isn’t going anywhere; this is the fifth time the program has been proposed.

In Colorado

The NAEP geography test results aren’t broken out by state, but a state education official suspects Colorado scores wouldn’t be much different.

Jo O’Brien, assistant commissioner of assessment, research and evaluation at the Colorado Department of Education, termed the national scores “abysmal” and “extraordinarily low.” She noted that social studies and geography aren’t part of the CSAP testing system, and said, “We just know that it’s unfortunate, but where schools are putting the preponderance of their time is where the exams are; they’re not investing at this point in comprehensive social studies.”

With the introduction of a statewide assessment in that area, O’Brien is sure that will change.

The State Board of Education last December unanimously approved requirements for a new state testing system, including the addition of social studies as a subject that would be tested statewide at least once at the elementary, middle and high school levels. Geography will be one of the four covered, along with history, economics and civics. That is scheduled to begin in the spring of 2014.

“When we turn on a social studies exam, I predict with full-throated confidence that we will have schools that turn their attention to instruction that is keyed to the fundamentals of historical and geographical knowledge and skills,” O’Brien said.

Adding social studies, including geography, to the statewide assessment is a critically important step, said Rebecca Theobald, coordinator at the Colorado Geographic Alliance and an assistant professor in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at the University of Colorado-Colorado Springs.

“By not testing social studies at the state level, this allowed the districts in Colorado to put social studies at the bottom of the level of importance for students,” said Theobald.

“And so, by having the state Board of Education saying we will test social studies, that means we will now be starting to ensure that our students will have a better sense of geography, economics, history and civics concepts, that we generally expect students to know when they graduate from high school.”

She added, “Social studies content can be excellent in terms of supporting both math and literacy. There are great opportunities for integrating instruction.”

– Charlie Brennan, EdNews

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Memphis parent advocacy group trains first Spanish-speaking cohort

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Manuela Martinez (center left) and Lidia Sauceda (center right) are among 19 parents in the first Spanish-speaking class of Memphis Lift’s Public Advocate Fellowship.

Manuela Martinez doesn’t want Spanish-speaking families to get lost in the fast-changing education landscape in Memphis as the city’s Hispanic population continues to grow.

The mother of two students is among 19 parents in the first Spanish-speaking class of Memphis Lift’s Public Advocate Fellowship, a program that trains parents on local education issues.

“We want to be more informed,” said Martinez, whose children attend Shelby County Schools. “I didn’t know I had much of voice or could change things at my child’s school. But I’m learning a lot about schools in Memphis, and how I can be a bigger part.”

More than 200 Memphians have gone through the 10-week fellowship program since the parent advocacy group launched two years ago. The vast majority have been African-Americans.

The first Spanish-speaking cohort is completing a five-week program this month and marks a concerted effort to bridge racial barriers, said Sarah Carpenter, the organization’s executive director.

“Our mission is to make the powerless parent powerful …,” she said.

The city’s mostly black public schools have experienced a steady growth in Hispanic students since 1992 when only 286 attended the former Memphis City Schools. In 2015, the consolidated Shelby County Schools had 13,816 Hispanic children and teens, or 12.3 percent of the student population.

Lidia Sauceda came to Memphis from Mexico as a child; now she has two children who attend Shelby County Schools. Through Memphis Lift, she is learning about how to navigate Tennessee’s largest district in behalf of her family.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Hispanic parents attend a training with the Memphis Lift fellowship program.

“Latinos are afraid of talking, of standing up,” Sauceda said. “They’re so afraid they’re not going to be heard because of their legal status. But I will recommend this (fellowship) to parents. How do we want our kids to have a better education if we can’t dedicate time?”

The training includes lessons on local school options, how to speak publicly at a school board meeting, and how to advocate for your children if you believe they are being treated unfairly.

The first fellowship was led by Ian Buchanan, former director of community partnership for the state-run Achievement School District. Now the program is taught in-house, and the Spanish-speaking class is being led this month by Carmelita Hernandez, an alumna.

“No matter what language we speak, we want a high-quality education for our kids just like any other parent,” Hernandez said. “A good education leads to better opportunities.”

Stopping summer slide

On National Summer Learning Day, Memphis takes stock of programs for kids

PHOTO: Helen Carefoot
Torrence Echols, a rising first-grader in Memphis, builds a tower with giant legos at the Benjamin L. Hooks Library on National Summer Learning Day.

When it comes to summer learning, it’s been a better year for Memphis, where a range of new programs have helped to stem learning loss that hits hard in communities with a high number of low-income students.

On Thursday, Mayor Jim Strickland celebrated that work in conjunction with National Summer Learning Day and against the backdrop of the children’s reading room of the city’s main library.

He estimated that 10,000 children and teens are being reached this summer through learning programs spearheaded through Shelby County Schools, Literacy Mid-South, Memphis Public Libraries, churches and nonprofit organizations across the community.

That’s a record-breaking number, Strickland says, in a city with a lot of students struggling to meet state and local reading targets.

Summer learning loss, also known as summer slide, is the tendency for students to lose some of the knowledge and skills they gained during the school year. It’s a large contributor to the achievement gap, since children from low-income families usually don’t get the same summer enrichment opportunities as their more affluent peers. Compounded year after year, the gap widens to the point that, by fifth grade, many students can be up to three years behind in math and reading.

But this summer for the first time, Shelby County Schools offered summer learning academies across the city for students most in need of intervention. And Memphis also received a slice of an $8.5 million state grant to provide summer literacy camps at nine Memphis schools through Tennessee’s Read to be Ready initiative.

Literacy Mid-South used Thursday’s event to encourage Memphians to “drop everything and read!”

The nonprofit, which is providing resources this summer through about 15 organizations in Greater Memphis, is challenging students to log 1,400 minutes of summertime reading, an amount that research shows can mitigate learning loss and even increase test scores.

Reading is a problem for many students in Memphis and across Tennessee. Less than a third of third-graders in Shelby County Schools read on grade level, and the district is working to boost that rate to 90 percent by 2025 under its Destination 2025 plan.

The city of Memphis, which does not fund local schools, has made Memphis Public Libraries the focal point of its education work. This summer, the library is offering programs on everything from STEM and robotics to art and test prep.

Parents are a critical component, helping their kids to take advantage of books, programs and services that counter the doldrums of summer learning.

Soon after the mayor left the Benjamin L. Hooks Library on Thursday, Tammy Echols arrived with her son, Torrence, a rising first-grader at Levi Elementary School. Echols said they visit regularly to read books and do computer and math games.

“We always do a lot of reading and we’re working on learning sight words,” Echols said as she watched her son build a tower out of giant Lego blocks. “Torrence is a learning child and it’s easy to forget what you just learned if you’re not constantly reinforcing.”

You can find summer learning resources for families from the National Summer Learning Association.