The Other 60 Percent

“Recess” coaches may help classroom work

Raymundo Barreles, 7, and Osiel Cervantes, 8, students at Denver's Swansea Elementary, settle a playground dispute amicably using the "rock, paper, scissors" method, taught to them by recess coach Eben Bowers.

Recess went better at Denver’s Swansea Elementary School last week than any week Principal Mary Sours can remember in the past ten years.

Kids were running instead of standing against the wall. Disputes were minimal. Energy was expended in a productive, healthy way that left youngsters ready for learning when they went back inside.

Oh, what a difference a week can make. And Sours and her teachers don’t ever want things to go back to the way they were.

“Teachers have now seen what recess can look like,” Sours said, “and they don’t want to give that up now.”

Swansea was one of seven DPS schools to get a trial “recess coach” for a week from Playworks, a California-based non-profit organization that operates programs in ten cities across the country with the goal of making recess more productive in low-income schools.

If funding can be arranged – and Sours is determined to find the $23,000 it will cost – then come fall, Swansea will hire a Playworks recess coach to permanently transform the recess ethos of the school, located in north-central Denver.

Give credit to Eben Bowers, the visiting Playworks coach, who last year ran a program in San Francisco, and now is a national recruiter. Bowers spent his mornings going into Swansea classrooms and teaching youngsters simple games.

He spent his afternoons implementing those games – things like Four Square and kickball and Hen-and-Chicks – paying special attention to those kids who normally hang back at recess time and don’t participate. Jabari Wimbs, Playworks program director from Silicon Valley, California, assisted.

“Believe it or not, a lot of kids don’t know how to play,” said Bowers. “The more athletic kids have all the power. So there are barriers we have to break down. We want to make it safe for any kid to get into any game they want to play. Giving them that opportunity makes all the difference. It builds up a kid’s confidence and social skills.”

Dispute resolution is big, and Playworks relies heavily on the time-tested “rock, paper, scissors” (aka Rochambeau) method.

“That alone cuts down a lot on the things that typically will escalate into fights,” Bowers said. That, and “high fives,” which are employed liberally to encourage youngsters to encourage each other.

Playworks origin: a frustrated principal

Playworks began 14 years ago in Oakland, Calif., the brainchild of Jill Vialet, who at the time was director of a Children’s Museum.

“I was at a school waiting to see the principal, and she was running late,” said Vialet, president and founder of Playworks. “She was coming out of her office looking aggravated, the way only an elementary school principal can, and she had three little boys trailing behind her.

“She started going on about why recess was hell, and how teachers found every reason to be somewhere else. Then she looked at me and said ‘Can’t you DO something?’ I was taken aback. I was there to talk about an artist-in-residence program.”

Eben Bowers teaches children the rules of a game on the playground at Swansea.

But the incident got Vialet thinking – and recalling her own childhood, and Clarence, the beloved park-and-rec worker who always made sure she got in the game: “I thought, ‘I could make it so the school had a guy like Clarence.”

The next year, she launched Sports4Kids, which later became Playworks. It’s the only non-profit organization in the country to send trained, full-time coaches into low-income schools to turn recess into a more positive experience.

Not a replacement for P.E.

The recess coaches don’t take the place of physical education teachers, and they’re not certified teachers. They’re mostly young, enthusiastic recent college graduates who are trained by Playworks to know and teach good games, good sportsmanship and good fun.

The actual cost of the program is closer to $60,000 per school, but grants from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation have enabled the program to underwrite much of the expense while expanding rapidly. An $18 million grant from RWJF in 2008 is helping Playworks expand into 27 cities by 2012.

Vialet said schools will more than recoup the costs of Playworks.

“From a purely monetary sense, over the course of a year, Playworks recovers about 36 hours of instruction per teacher. It works out to about six minutes saved after every recess period, so cumulatively, it adds up over the course of a year,” she said. “Teachers, instead of spending time resolving fights, can spend time teaching. it maximizes value.”

Swansea fourth-grade special education teacher Cleo McElliott figures a smooth recess is worth even more than that.

“It takes 15 to 20 minutes out of a 45-minute block of time to get the kids to settle down after recess,” she said, as she watched her students romp with Bowers. “We’ve had too much chaos going on out here. Too much pushing and shoving. And we’d have kids lined up against the wall, standing there for 30 minutes, not getting to run off any energy. And all this impacts learning.”

McElliott said students need to run and play “but they don’t know how.”

“Some don’t even know how to play tag,” she said. “They just push a kid down and thing that’s tag. It really does affect the classroom. I hate inside days!”

Kids seek structure, predictability

By Friday, Swansea’s playground was deftly organized into small hives of activity. Bowers checked in on each of half a dozen different games going on in different parts of the yard, but the children knew the rules and were largely policing their own play.

“Kids really do like structure and predictability,” Sours said. “Every school has great kids. If you give them something purposeful to do, they will do it themselves, and you just need to monitor it. I’m seeing kids outside with a purpose now.”

Sours is not alone in appreciating the benefits of recess. A recent study of 2,000 elementary school principals nationwide, sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, found huge support for recess, even as many principals acknowledge they’ve cut out recess to meet other academic demands.

Still, four out of five principals believe recess positively impacts academic achievement, and two-thirds believe students are more focused in class following recess.

Sours said that while one week isn’t long enough to assess whether an improved recess will impact academic performance at her school, she’s already seen a decrease in discipline problems.

“When kids break a rule, they have to stand by the wall for awhile,” she said. “And I’m seeing fewer bodies by the wall. This is bringing out the best in the kids.”

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Read “A State of Play,” the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation report on recess

Read “School Recess and Group Classroom Behavior,” a 2009 study published in Pediatrics

Click here for a peek into the Playworks playbook for ideas about active games that children can play to not only get exercise but also to learn collaboration and problem-solving skills.

Watch an interview with recess coach Eben Bowers:

Watch a video of Swansea kids playing on their playground:

in support

Denver school board pledges to ‘stand shoulder-to-shoulder’ with undocumented immigrants

PHOTO: John Leyba/The Denver Post
Arizona Valverde, a ninth grader at Denver's North High, holds a sign in support of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program in September 2017.

The Denver school board took a stand Thursday in support of young undocumented immigrants, urging Congress to save the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program and pledging to provide opportunities for Denver educators to teach students about immigrant rights.

“You have accomplices and luchadores in us,” said board member Angela Cobián.

Cobián, who represents the heavily Latino region of southwest Denver and is the daughter of Mexican immigrants, was one of three board members who read the resolution out loud. Board member Lisa Flores read it in English, while Cobián and board member Carrie Olson, who until being elected last year worked as a bilingual Denver teacher, took turns reading it in Spanish.

“That was the most beautiful resolution I’ve ever heard read, and it’s so important,” board president Anne Rowe said when they’d finished.

The resolution passed unanimously. It says the seven-member school board implores Congress, including Colorado’s representatives, to “protect the DREAMers, providing them with the lasting solution they deserve and an end to the uncertainty they face.”

It also says the board “recognizes the importance of educators discussing and engaging with students on this issue,” including by delivering lessons explaining the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, which provides temporary protection from deportation and work permits to immigrants under 35 who were brought to the United States as children.

President Trump announced in September that he would end the Obama-era program on March 5. Lawmakers are trying to craft a plan to provide legal protections to the approximately 800,000 immigrants who are in danger of losing their DACA status. Two different deals failed to pass the Senate Thursday night.

About 17,000 such immigrants live in Colorado. Denver Public Schools doesn’t track how many of its 92,600 students are protected by DACA, but the resolution notes that many young undocumented immigrants, often referred to as DREAMers, “have attended DPS schools their entire lives or are DPS graduates who have built their lives in our community.”

The district was also the first in the country to hire, through the Teach for America program, teachers who are DACA recipients. Cobián recognized five of those teachers Thursday.

A recent national study found that DACA has encouraged undocumented students to finish high school and enroll in college. The study also noted a decrease in teen pregnancy and an increase in the number of 17- to 29-year-old non-citizens who are working.

The resolution notes that ending DACA “will be deeply harmful to our schools and community, depriving countless students, families, and educators of their peace of mind, creating widespread fear and uncertainty, and causing significant disruption to the learning environment.”

This is not the first time the Denver school board has made a formal show of support for immigrant students. A year ago, as Trump’s presidency sparked fears of an immigration crackdown, the board unanimously approved a resolution affirming the district would do everything “in its lawful power” to protect students’ confidential information and ensure “students’ learning environments are not disrupted” by immigration enforcement actions.

Below, read in full the resolution passed Thursday.

mental health matters

Colorado lawmakers say yes to anti-bullying policies but no to suicide prevention efforts

PHOTO: Denver Post file

It was the suicide late last year of 10-year-old Ashawnty Davis that prompted state Sen. Rhonda Fields to call on state education officials to develop better anti-bullying policies.

Ashawnty, a fifth-grade student at Sunrise Elementary School in Aurora, took her own life after a video of her confronting a bully was posted to social media. As Fields met with grieving constituents, she felt like she didn’t know enough to act.

“The issue is very complex, and I felt like I couldn’t move forward on some of the suggestions because I hadn’t done the research,” said Fields, an Aurora Democrat. “If we really want to reduce incidents of bullying, it has to be tied to evidence-based practices and research so that schools know what works.”

Relatives of Ashawnty and of other children who had attempted suicide provided emotional testimony to the Senate Education Committee Wednesday morning. In a bipartisan, though not unanimous, vote, committee members advanced legislation that would require the Colorado Department of Education to research and write an anti-bullying policy that school districts could use as a model. A few hours later, the Senate’s “kill” committee, one to which members of Republican leadership send bills they don’t want to get a full vote, rejected a separate bill that would have provided grants of between $5,000 and $10,000 to school districts to help train teachers, students, and others in effective suicide prevention.

“You vote for anti-bullying policies, you vote for $7 million for interoperable radios, and you can’t support suicide prevention,” said an angry state Sen. Nancy Todd in the hallway after the vote. Todd, an Aurora Democrat, was a sponsor of the suicide prevention bill, and she and state Sen. Owen Hill both serve on the education committee. Hill, a Colorado Springs Republican, also serves on State Affairs and voted yes on the anti-bullying bill and no on the suicide prevention bill.

Ashawnty Davis was the youngest of a series of children to die by suicide last year, and before the session started, lawmakers pledged to provide more support to schools and students.

Experts caution against drawing a direct line between bullying and suicide. Studies have found that children who are bullied – as well as children who engage in bullying – are at higher risk of harming themselves, but most children who are bullied don’t try to take their own lives. There are often multiple factors involved.

Nonetheless, the testimony heard by the Senate Education Committee focused on preventing bullying as a way to prevent suicide.

Kristy Arellano, whose daughter suffered a severe brain injury in a suicide attempt that occurred after being bullied, said neither she nor her daughter’s teachers had the tools they needed.

“We need to arm our schools and their faculty with the tools for how to stop bullying,” she said. “I think my daughter just didn’t know how to deal with the hateful things that were said to her, and I didn’t know how to help her either.”

Trembling as he described his family’s loss, Dedrick Harris, Ashawnty’s uncle, said passing this legislation and putting better anti-bullying policies in place would give some meaning to his niece’s death.

“My niece became a statistic,” he said. “I support this because it’s all I can do.”

Dew Walker, a family preservation specialist and grief counselor based in Denver, said current policies aren’t helping children, and they can feel like they have no way out.

“I’m here because there are children who don’t have a voice,” she said. “They reported their bullying, but they felt like nothing was being done. They didn’t report it to the right people, or they just weren’t that important. They go silent. They wear a mask. And they know about zero tolerance, and they worry that if they defend themselves, they’ll be in trouble, not the bully.”

The anti-bullying bill was co-sponsored by Fields and state Sen. Kevin Priola, a Brighton Republican who, back when he was still a representative in the state House, sponsored the 2011 legislation that created the Department of Education’s current bullying prevention program.

School districts are required to have anti-bullying policies that meet certain criteria, and the department makes resources and information about best practices available on its website.

The department also has provided $4.1 million in grants from marijuana tax money to 73 schools to develop anti-bullying programs.

Melissa Colsman, associate commissioner for student learning for the Colorado Department of Education, said that because so many other states have developed model policies, she believes the work can be done without needing additional resources and may be of value to school districts.

“We know that other states have seen this as valuable,” she said.

While Colsman said she isn’t qualified to talk about the link between bullying and suicide, “the concerns of children committing suicide are something that we all need to be thinking about.”

The suicide prevention bill would have made grants available for up to 25 interested school districts, public schools, or charter schools each year at a cost of roughly $300,000. Todd said that it was her intention that the bulk of the money come from gifts, donations, and grants, though the bill language also allowed for a general fund appropriation. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment already gets $539,000 in state money for suicide prevention efforts, as well as a $736,000 from a five-year federal grant to reduce youth suicide in eight Colorado counties, according to a fiscal analysis. Attorney General Cynthia Coffman recently launched a $200,000 initiative targeted at four counties with the highest suicide rates.

Todd’s bill would have made money available specifically to schools in all parts of the state.

Like other Western states, Colorado has a suicide rate that is higher than the national average, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for people aged 10 to 24.

The bill would have allowed schools to design their own programs, and the grant money could have been used for training for parents and teachers, to help students recognize warning signs in their peers and know how to respond, and for the development of curriculum and educational materials.

In voting no, Hill cited concerns about how the grant program would be paid for, while state Sen. Vicki Marble, the Fort Collins Republican who chairs the State Affairs committee, said it sounded like a government solution to a family and community problem.

“Our children have a respect problem,” she said. “They aren’t what they used to be.”

Marble said she knows the guilt that survivors carry because 10 members of her extended family have taken their own lives.

“Government is not the answer,” she said. “What I see in this bill is the same bureaucracy of reports and advisory groups and grants and money, but no solutions.”


Resources

Colorado Crisis Line: 1-844-493-8255, coloradocrisisservices.org. Chat online or text TALK to 38255.

Mental Health First Aid: mhfaco.org. Get trained to recognize the signs and how to respond.

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: afsp.org. Join one of their upcoming walks for awareness in Colorado.

Crisis Text Line: crisistextline.org. Text 741741 from anywhere in the nation to reach a counselor.